Electro-Optics is the technology for generation, modulation, detection, and measurement, or display of optical radiation by electrical means. Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is energy propagated through a medium in the form of an advancing disturbance, or wave, in electric and magnetic fields. The path of EM radiation through the atmosphere depends on the wavelength of the radiation and on atmospheric variables. Electro Optical systems operate in the optical spectrum, which ranges from .01 to 1000 micrometers. Electro Optical Systems cover the frequency range from 10^4 GHz to 10^6 GHz. Due to a high variation in frequency, the specification of EO systems is often referred to by wavelength.
The Optical Spectrum can be further classified into following spectrums:
Our products use scientific CMOS, Cooled and uncooled Microbolometers as well as MCT detectors along with our indigenously designed Reflective and Refractive Optical systems to offer solutions across a wide segment of EM spectrum and for a variety of FOV. Mil-grade, Industrial grade and Commercial grade versions of raw material are used for different applications / customer segment thereby ensuring perfect price to performance ratio.
The visible light spectrum is the section of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum that is visible to the human eye. Essentially, that equates to the colors the human eye can see. It ranges in wavelength from approximately 400 nanometers to 700 nm. It is also known as the optical spectrum of light or the spectrum of white light. Just like the human eye, Visible Imaging Sensors require light. Their performance is also greatly reduced by atmospheric conditions such as fog, haze, smoke, heat waves, and smog. This limits their applications to daytime and clear skies. Therefore, visible cameras often need to be paired with illumination or thermal infrared cameras in order to work at night or in low Lux scenes, or in environments that have fog, haze, smoke or sandstorms that can render visible cameras useless.
Since it covers the color wavelengths, color information for the image is available and can be processed within the image
Using high resolution sensors, excellent detail can be achieved in imaging.
Essentially, Near Infra-Red (NIR) is a subset of the IR spectrum, it covers wavelength between 0.7 to 1.4 microns. This spectrum is just outside of our visible range, and sometimes can present higher details that what is achievable with VIS. Like the IR spectrum, NIR is beyond color wavelengths, resulting in most objects looking very similar to a grayscale image. However, there is an exception, trees and plants, which are highly reflective in the NIR wavelength appear much brighter than they do in color. That difference in reflectivity of certain objects, in combination with reduced atmospheric haze and distortion in the NIR wavelength, means that detail and visibility are often improved at long ranges.
Longer wavelengths of NIR can penetrate Haze, Smoke, Light Fog and other atmospheric conditions better than it’s VIS counterpart. This results in sharper images with less noise with better contrast for Long Distance Imaging.
Unlike its Thermal counterpart, NIR is a reflected energy and hence behaves much closer to visible light. This essentially means it can see things like printed information on signs, vessels and vehicles. Facial features, clothing and other objects also appear natural and easily identifiable than in thermal.
All objects warmer than absolute zero (-273°C/-459°F) emit infrared radiation in the MWIR and LWIR wavelengths (3µm–14µm) in an amount proportional to the temperature of the object. Thermal imaging focuses and detects this radiation, then translates the temperature variations into a greyscale image, using brighter and darker shades of grey to represent hotter and cooler temperatures, which gives a visual representation to the heat profile of the scene.
The most common form of thermal imaging technology available today is the microbolometer sensor. Microbolometers are built using vanadium oxide (VOx) or amorphous silicon (a-Si) processes. Microbolometer pixels are very complex. The pixel is shaped like a table with two legs that separate it from a substrate and read out integrated circuit (ROIC) below. The “table” is made of electrically conductive material such as VOx and forms a complete circuit with the underlying electronics. When incident LWIR energy strikes the “table top” the electrical resistance of its materials change. More incident radiation causes a greater change in resistance. This change in resistance can be probed by passing a current through the device. Therefore, changes in temperature can be read out as electronic signals and used to produce an image.
Short Wave IR deals with electromagnetic radiation between the wavelengths of 1.4 to 3 microns. This wavelength is not visible to human eye, hence it offers more details than any VIS camera system. SWIR cameras are extremely sensitive to light, with individual pixels of the focal plane array able to capture and detect single photons. When combined with a phenomenon called night sky radiance, which emits up to 700% more illumination than starlight and is comprised mainly of SWIR wavelengths, SWIR cameras can see objects with a high level of detail, even on moonless and starless nights.
Longer wavelengths can penetrate heavy fog, smoke and other atmospheric conditions. SWIR systems constantly and consistently produce superior images to their Optical counterparts, as they are able to see through atmospheric obstructions.
SWIR wavelengths can travel through glass, unlike it’s thermal counterpart. This enables SWIR systems to be an effective tool for Identification and Friend or Foe Detection.